Blue Nevi – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Definition

Group of melanocytic lesions which all appear blue in colour due to the optical effects of light reflecting off melanin deep in the dermis. The blue color is caused by large, densely packed melanocytes deep in the dermis of the nevus. In children, they usually occur on the buttocks and lumbosacral region and are referred to as cellular blue nevi. Malignant blue nevi are more commonly found on the scalp.

Causes

Blue Rubber Bleb Nevi may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Human traits, including the classic genetic diseases, are the product of the interaction of two genes, one received from the father and one from the mother. In dominant disorders, a single copy of the disease gene (received from either the mother or father) will be expressed “dominating” the other normal gene and resulting in the appearance of the disease.

Common cause’s are-

  • Moles on the surface of the body are the main cause in the formation of blue nevi.
  • UVB is also the main cause of blue nevi, which affects the outer skin layers. UVB is most intense at midday when sunlight is brightest.
  • UVA penetrates more deeply and efficiently – However, UVA’s intensity also tends to be less variable both during the day and throughout the year as it varies for UVB’s.
  • Bulging veins may lead to the production of Blue Nevi.
  • Blueness usually of hands, fingers or feet.

Symptoms

Symptoms of blue nevi is to composed of skin and large dilated blood vessels, the nevi do not disappear and are found on internal organs such as the stomach, liver, spleen, heart, bone, muscle, bladder, and vulva. They are easily compressible and refill after compression. Occasionally, the nevi are painful. Ranging in size from millimeters to several centimeters, the nevi can number from a few to hundreds.

Nevi are usually present at birth. Sometimes, however, they may not appear until ages two or three.

Patients with BRBNS develop an extreme paleness or pallor of the skin. This paleness results because anemia, a low blood count, decreases the amount of oxygen available to the surface skin. Often they complain of fatigue that result from low iron stores and the anemia.

Treatment

Treatment of Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus primarily involves surgical removal of the hemangioma. Carbon dioxide laser surgery is recommended for removal of external hemangiomas. Removal of internal hemangiomas usually requires conventional surgery. Surgical resection may be recommended to treat growths in the gastrointestinal tract. Genetic counseling may be of benefit for patients and their families. Other treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

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