Cysts – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment



Cysts are common and can occur anywhere in the body in persons of any age. Cysts usually contain a gaseous, liquid, or semisolid substance. Ovarian cysts are common among women during their reproductive years and are growths that form on the two almond sized organs on each side of the uterus. They may occur as a result of a developmental error in the embryo before birth, or they may be caused by an infection, or, in some cases, they arise spontaneously and no cause is found.

The common cysts are-

  • Ovarian Cyst
  • Ganglion
  • Baker’s cyst
  • Sebaceous cysts
  • Branchial and thyroglossal cysts
  • Breast cysts


Causes depends on which type of cysts a patient have. Most cysts form for no apparent reason. A ganglion develops when a jelly-like substance accumulates in one of two places – a joint capsule or a tendon sheath – and causes it to balloon out. Oral contraceptive/birth control pill use decreases the risk of developing ovarian cysts because they prevent the ovaries from producing eggs during ovulation.

Some of the known causes of cysts include:

  • Tumors
  • Blocked ducts, which cause a build-up of fluid

  • Chronic inflammatory conditions
  • Genetic (inherited) conditions
  • Defects in developing organs in the embryo
  • An impact injury that pops a blood vessel


The common symptoms are-

  • Pelvic pain shortly before your period begins or just before it ends
  • Severe menstrual cramps
  • Pelvic pain during intercourse (dyspareunia)
  • Pain accompanied by fever or vomiting
  • Nausea, vomiting or breast tenderness similar to that experienced during pregnancy
  • Fullness or heaviness in your abdomen Sudden, severe abdominal or pelvic pain
  • Weight gain


The treatment for a cyst depends upon the cause of the cyst along with its location. If you have not yet gone through menopause, you may not need any treatment, unless the cyst is very big or causing pain. The need for treatment depends mostly upon the location and size of the cyst. If the cyst is small, not disturbing surrounding tissue, and not causing symptoms, some doctors will refrain from treatment.

If there is any suspicion that a cyst is cancerous, the cyst is generally removed by surgery, or a biopsy is taken of the cyst wall (capsule) to rule out malignancy.


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